Friday, February 24, 2012

Ontology: Characters (Part 3)

Campbell identified the three stages of the journey as departure, initiation, and return. Within those three stages, Campbell identified a series of steps (Campbell, 1949, pp. ix-x):
  • Departure: The departureis the first of the three stages of the hero’s journey and consists of five steps:
    • Call to Adventure: The call to adventure occurs at the point in a person’s life when something important happens, sending the person in a new direction.
    • Refusal of the Call: Sometimes when a person receives a call to adventure, a refusal of the call occurs because of fear, a feeling that he/she can’t leave certain responsibilities, or concerns about not being strong enough or smart enough to start an adventure.
    • Supernatural Aid: Once the hero has started the adventure, supernatural aid in the form of a guardian, guide or mystical/magical helper appears to provide help. This character may or may not be human.
    • Crossing of the First Threshold: When the hero leaves familiar surroundings and normal life behind, this is the crossing of the first threshold. It marks the point at which the hero enters into the unknown to truly begin the adventure in dangerous places where the rules are no longer known.
    • Belly of the Whale: The hero is truly between worlds upon entering the belly of the whale. At this point in the adventure, the familiar world has been left behind and the world ahead is unknown, often leaving the hero frightened, feeling alone, and beginning to recognize the magnitude of the task that he/she has undertaken and the challenges that are to come.
  • Initiation: The initiationis the second stage of the hero’s journey and consists of six steps:
    • Road of Trials: The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that a person must undergo as part of becoming a hero.
    • Meeting with the Goddess: After surviving the road of trials, the hero experiences a meeting with the goddess, which takes the form of experiencing a great love – perhaps romantic love, or a love for friends and family, or the experience of a divine love – from which the hero gains strength and a sense of well being.
    • Temptation: At some point in the adventure, the hero experiences the temptation to quit the journey and go home.
    • Atonement: The atonement is the center point of the journey. All the previous steps have been moving in to this place, all that follow will move out from it. At this point in the journey, the hero must face whatever holds the ultimate power in his or her life.
    • Apotheosis: After facing and surviving the great power in his/her life, the hero may experience the oneness and beauty of the universe. The apotheosis is a period of rest and reflection before the return journey is made.
    • Ultimate Boon: The ultimate boon occurs when the hero has achieved the primary goal of the journey.
  • Return: The returnis the third and final stage of the hero’s journey and consists of six steps.
    • Refusal of the Return: The refusal of the return occurs if the hero refuses to go back to a normal life. This can occur if the adventure has been a glorious one or if the hero is concerned that his/her message will not be heard.
    • Magic Flight: The magic flight occurs if the hero must steal the boon and make a daring escape that is as adventurous and dangerous as the first part of the journey was.
    • Rescue from Without: The rescue from without occurs when the hero needs the help of a guardian or guide to return to a normal life.
    • Crossing of the Return Threshold: At the crossing of the return threshold the hero returns to the normal and familiar, and the challenge is now to remember what was learned on the journey and use it to improve his/her life and the lives of others in the normal world.
    • Master of the Two Worlds: The hero has learned to be comfortable in both the everyday world and the world of adventure, including being comfortable with who he/she is and with others. The hero may also be ready to take on the role of guardian or guide for someone else. This makes him or her master of the two worlds.
    • Freedom to Live: In the last step of the journey, the hero has mastered the fears of life and has achieved the freedom to live without those fears.
Concept map of elements of hero's journey

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